The head of state for the early Republic of Venice was the Doge. The Palazzo Ducale, or Doge’s Palace is Venetian Gothic characterized by the spontaneous imagination of the stonecutter. It has features of mainstream Gothic such as the pointed arch, vaulting, windows and portals with quatrefoils and trefoil details. On the ground floor the vaults transmit the load to the great columns because the instability of the Venetian terrain did not permit an upper tier to be vaulted in stone. On the balcony level the columns are closely spaced spreading the weight evenly. The Campanile, or bell tower built in the 12th century suddenly collapsed on 14th July 1902. In 1912 the Venetians had it painstakingly rebuilt. It is 98.6 m high with a double wall and the advantage of a lift going up to the belfry from where there is a magnificent view of the city.
Carolyn McDowall FRSA has gained considerable experience and business acumen in her professional career. An independent cultural and social historian, Carolyn is an interior designer by trade. She has been involved in the creative sector for over thirty years in Australia; completing interior design projects, creating and producing innovative corporate and not-for profit (social profit) community events. She has over that time continuously conducted independent research , while designing, developing, and producing educational art and design history programs in conjunction with renowned specialist colleagues.